Releasing the biennial India State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2021 that recorded an general achieve of 1,540 sq km of forests since 2019 on Wednesday, Surroundings Minister Bhupender Yadav emphasised on “sustaining the standard of forest” as the federal government’s prime precedence. The report, nonetheless, testifies to the persevering with lack of pure old-growth forests throughout the nation.
Whereas Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Odisha, Karnataka and Jharkhand contributed probably the most to the nationwide achieve in forest cowl, and the Northeast reported the largest losses, the numbers in ISFR 2021 add as much as a complete destruction of 1,643 sq km of dense forests, which have turn into non-forests since 2019.
Over one-third of this loss has been compensated by conversion of 549 sq km of non-forest (cover density beneath 10%) areas to dense forests (cover density over 40%) since 2019. These are plantations of fast-growing species since pure forests hardly ever develop so quick.
Since 2003, when “change matrix” information had been first made obtainable, 19,708 sq km — greater than half of Kerala’s landmass — of dense forests have turn into non-forests within the nation. The decadal price of this destruction of high quality pure forests has greater than doubled from 7,002 sq km throughout 2003-2013 to 12,706 sq km since 2013 (see chart).
On paper, a lot of this loss has been offset by fast-growing plantations as 10,776 sq of non-forest areas turned dense forests in successive two-year home windows since 2003, practically two-third of that (7,142 sq km) since 2013.
Among the many 5 states that recorded most general achieve in forest cowl since 2019, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Karnataka present a web loss in dense forests (see chart). Whereas Jharkhand maintained established order, Telangana claimed a major enhance (348 sq km) in dense forest cowl.
The development persists among the many prime 5 losers. Whereas Arunachal Pradesh (418 sq km) and Manipur (158 sq km) misplaced extra dense forests than open forest patches, neighbouring Nagaland, Mizoram (86 sq km every) and Meghalaya (36 sq km) additionally recorded vital losses of dense forests.
Different huge losers of dense forests embrace Madhya Pradesh (143 sq km), Jammu and Kashmir (97 sq km), Assam (66 sq km), Uttar Pradesh (41 sq km) and Tripura (31 sq km). Apart from Telangana, Chhattisgarh (81 sq km), West Bengal ( 66 sq km) and Maharashtra (30 sq km) recorded vital web achieve in dense forests.
General, the forest cowl has elevated to 7,13,789 sq km, or 21.71% of India’s geographical space. Together with the tree cowl exterior recorded forest areas on plots of lower than one hectare, the full inexperienced cowl now stands at 8,09.537 sq km (24.62%). India stays one of many prime 10 international locations by way of forest cowl, with Brazil main the pack at 59.4%, adopted by Peru at 56.5%.
Releasing the report, minister Yadav stated as many as 17 states now had 33% forest cowl. “There was a rise in mangroves as nicely, which is encouraging as they’re extraordinarily essential for the safety of coastal areas from pure calamities like cyclones… The forest produce stock can be being ready and will likely be launched quickly.”
Since 2019, the world underneath mangroves has elevated by 17 sq km to 4,992 sq km, and the tree cowl by 721 sq km. Of 52 tiger reserves, 20 have recorded a rise in forest cowl since 2011. General, the forest cowl in tiger reserves and corridors declined by 22.6 sq km (0.04%). Buxa, Anamalai and Indravati reserves have proven a rise whereas the utmost loss has been in Kawal, Bhadra and the Sunderbans.
The report places the full carbon inventory within the nation’s forests at 7,204 million tonnes — a rise of 79.4 million tonnes in comparison with 2019. It additionally identifies 35.46% of the forest cowl as vulnerable to forest fires.
ISFR 2021 attributed the achieve in forest cowl or enchancment in forest cover density to “higher conservation measures, safety, afforestation actions, tree plantation drives and agroforestry” whereas it held shifting cultivation, felling of bushes, pure calamities, anthropogenic stress and developmental actions chargeable for the loss, notably within the Northeast.
The report, nonetheless, “doesn’t make any distinction between the origin of tree crops (whether or not pure or artifical)”, and “all of the tree species together with bamboos, fruit bearing bushes, coconut, palm bushes and so on” on plots of 1 hectare and above and with “cover density of greater than 10 per cent” are included as forest cowl.